World diabetes day is in the 14th of November. Concurrent with this day every year, diabetes awareness campaigns are launched in the whole world. They are tries to overcome this disease and diminish its hazards as much as possible.
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. In addition to that, it’s very relevant to many known diseases and cases. The most important of which are heart diseases, hypertension, and elevated cholesterol level. Also, diabetes has been linked to many cases of obesity, especially the excessive ones. Briefly, diabetes leads to many health complications which are absolutely undesirable.
Before meals, normal blood glucose level/BGL ranges from 70 to 120 mg/dl. During the two hours after eating, it’s under 140 mg/dl . BGL is regulated by many hormones, one of which is insulin. It is a hormone with multi functions, the most important of which is decreasing BGL. Insulin is synthesized and released from the pancreas.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease associated with
- Hyperglycemia (high levels of sugar in blood..BGL > 126 mg/dl)
- Impaired metabolism
- Ketoacidosis that occurs as a result of lipolysis (breaking down of fats)
It occurs as a result of either insulin deficiency, or ineffective use of the insulin produced in body. In other words, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or insulin is resisted. This leads to hyperglycemia and disorders in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Diabetes mellitus upon long term leads to dysfunction, damage, and failure of many body systems and organs.
Most susceptible individuals to Diabetes
3-Persons with family history of diabetes mellitus.
Symptoms of Diabetes
- Polyuria (increased urination).
- Polyphagia (increased hunger).
- Polydipsia (dry Mouth).
- Blurred vision.
- Recurrent infections.
- Itchy vaginitis (candidiasis).
- Numbness in feet.
- Slow healing of wounds.
- Loss of weight (due to lipolysis to get energy).
■ Read: The 3 secrets guide to get in shape
Lab finding and diagnosis of Diabetes
1. Fasting blood level > 140 mg/dl.
2. Two hours postprandial blood glucose level > 200 mg/dl.
3. Ketone bodies in blood (Ketonemia), and in urine (Ketonuria).
4. Glycated hemoglobin, a test for controlling blood glucose level in the last two months.
5. Glycated plasma albumin (fructosamine), a test for blood glucose level in the last two weeks.
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus
1. Type I diabetes mellitus is treated by insulin replacement therapy.
2. Type II diabetes mellitus can be treated by oral hypoglycemics which are called insulin sensitizers. They perform their actions by increasing the sensitivity of body cells to endogenous insulin.
Oral hypoglycemics are
1) Sulfonyl urea, as: Glimepiride.
2) Biguanides, as: Metformin.
3) Alpha glucosidase inhibitors, as: Acarbose.
4) Thiazoledinedions; insulin sensitizers, as: Rosiglitazone.
■ Obesity, Hypertension.
■ Diabetes mellitus prevalence, classification, and complications.